Special Issue of “Educational Researcher” (Paper #5 of 9): Teachers’ Perceptions of Observations and Student Growth

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Recall that the peer-reviewed journal Educational Researcher (ER) – recently published a “Special Issue” including nine articles examining value-added measures (VAMs). I have reviewed the next of nine articles (#5 of 9) here, titled “Teacher Perspectives on Evaluation Reform: Chicago’s REACH [Recognizing Educators Advancing Chicago Students] Students.” This one is authored by Jennie Jiang, Susan Sporte, and Stuart Luppescu, all of whom are associated with The University of Chicago’s Consortium on Chicago School Research, and all of whom conducted survey- and interview-based research on teachers’ perceptions of the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) teacher evaluation system, twice since it was implemented in 2012–2013. They did this across CPS’s almost 600 schools and its more than 12,000 teachers, with high-stakes being recently attached to teacher evaluations (e.g., professional development plans, remediation, tenure attainment, teacher dismissal/contract non-renewal; p. 108).

Directly related to the Review of Article #4 prior (i.e., #4 of 9 on observational systems’ potentials here), these researchers found that Chicago teachers are, in general, positive about the evaluation system, primarily given the system’s observational component (i.e., the Charlotte Danielson Framework for Teaching, used twice per year for tenured teachers and that counts for 75% of teachers’ evaluation scores), and not given the inclusion of student growth in this evaluation system (that counts for the other 25%). Although researchers also found that overall satisfaction levels with the REACH system at large is declining at a statistically significant rate over time, as teachers get to know the system, perhaps, better.

This system, like the strong majority of others across the nation, is based on only these two components, although the growth measure includes a combination of two different metrics (i.e., value-added scores and growth on “performance tasks” as per the grades and subject areas taught). See more information about how these measures are broken down by teacher type in Table 1 (p. 107), and see also (p. 107) for the different types of measures used (e.g., the Northwest Evaluation Association’s Measures of Academic Progress assessment (NWEA-MAP), a Web-based, computer-adaptive, multiple-choice assessment, that is used to measure value-added scores for teachers in grades 3-8).

As for the student growth component, more specifically, when researchers asked teachers “if their evaluation relies too heavily on student growth, 65% of teachers agreed or strongly agreed” (p. 112); “Fifty percent of teachers disagreed or strongly disagreed that NWEA-MAP [and other off-the-shelf tests used to measure growth in CPS offered] a fair assessment of their student’s learning” (p. 112); “teachers expressed concerns about the narrow representation of student learning that is measured by standardized tests and the increase in the already heavy testing burden on teachers and students” (p. 112); and “Several teachers also expressed concerns that measures of student growth were unfair to teachers in more challenging schools [i.e., bias], because student growth is related to the supports that students may or may not receive outside of the classroom” (p. 112). “One teacher explained this concern [writing]: “I think the part that I find unfair is that so much of what goes on in these kids’ lives is affecting their academics, and those are things that a
teacher cannot possibly control” (p. 112).

As for the performance tasks meant to compliment (or serve as) the student growth or VAM measure, teachers were discouraged with this being so subjective, and susceptible to distortion because teachers “score their own students’ performance tasks at both the beginning and end of the year. Teachers noted that if they wanted to maximize their student growth score, they could simply give all students a low score on the beginning-of-year task and a higher score at the end of the year” (p. 113).

As for the observational component, however, researchers found that “almost 90% of teachers agreed that the feedback they were provided in post-observation conferences” (p. 111) was of highest value; the observational processes but more importantly the post-observational processes made them and their supervisors more accountable for their effectiveness, and more importantly their improvement. While in the conclusions section of this article authors stretch this finding out a bit, writing that “Overall, this study finds that there is promise in teacher evaluation reform in Chicago,” (p. 114) as primarily based on their findings about “the new observation process” (p. 114) being used in CPS, recall from the Review of Article #4 prior (i.e., #4 of 9 on observational systems’ potentials here), these observational systems are not “new and improved.” Rather, these are the same observational systems that, given their levels of subjectivity featured and highlighted in reports like “The Widget Effect” (here), brought us to our now (over)reliance on VAMs.

Researchers also found that teachers were generally confused about the REACH system, and what actually “counted” and for how much in their evaluations. The most confusion surrounded the student growth or value-added component, as (based on prior research) would be expected. Beginning teachers reported more clarity, than did relatively more experienced teachers, high school teachers, and teachers of special education students, and all of this was related to the extent to which a measure of student growth directly impacted teachers’ evaluations. Teachers receiving school-wide value-added scores were also relatively more critical.

Lastly, researchers found that in 2014, “79% of teachers reported that the evaluation process had increased their levels of stress and anxiety, and almost 60% of teachers
agreed or strongly agreed the evaluation process takes more effort than the results are worth.” Again, beginning teachers were “consistently more positive on all…measures than veteran teachers; elementary teachers were consistently more positive than high
school teachers, special education teachers were significantly more negative about student growth than general teachers,” and the like (p. 113). And all of this was positively and significantly related to teachers’ perceptions of their school’s leadership, perceptions of the professional communities at their schools, and teachers’ perceptions of evaluation writ large.

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If interested, see the Review of Article #1 – the introduction to the special issue here; see the Review of Article #2 – on VAMs’ measurement errors, issues with retroactive revisions, and (more) problems with using standardized tests in VAMs here; see the Review of Article #3 – on VAMs’ potentials here; and see the Review of Article #4 – on observational systems’ potentials here.

Article #5 Reference: Jiang, J. Y., Sporte, S. E., & Luppescu, S. (2015). Teacher perspectives on evaluation reform: Chicago’s REACH students. Educational Researcher, 44(2), 105-116. doi:10.3102/0013189X15575517

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