All Recommended Articles about VAMs (n=86)

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To link to the “Top 15″ suggested research articles, click here. To link to the “Top 25″ suggested research articles, click here. To link to all suggested research articles published in American Educational Research Association (AERA) journals, click here.

  1. American Statistical Association (2014). ASA statement on using value-added models for educational assessment. Alexandria, VA.
  2. Amrein-Beardsley, A. (2008). Methodological concerns about the Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS). Educational Researcher, 37(2), 65-75doi:10.3102/0013189X08316420
  3. Amrein-Beardsley, A. (2009). Buyers be-aware: What you don’t know can hurt you. Educational Leadership, 67(3), 38-42.
  4. Amrein-Beardsley, A. (2012). Value-added measures in education: The best of the alternatives is simply not good enough [Commentary]. Teachers College Record.
  5. Amrein-Beardsley, A., & Barnett, J. H. (2012). Working with error and uncertainty to increase measurement validityEducational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 1-11. doi: 10.1007/s11092-012-9146-6
  6. Amrein-Beardsley, A., & Collins, C. (2012). The SAS Education Value-Added Assessment System (SAS® EVAAS®) in the Houston Independent School District (HISD): Intended and unintended consequences. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 20(12), 1-36.
  7. Au, W. (2011). Neither fair nor accurate: Research-based reasons why high-stakes tests should not be used to evaluate teachers. Rethinking Schools.
  8. Baker, E. L., Barton, P. E., Darling-Hammond, L., Haertel, E., Ladd, H. F., Linn, R. L., Ravitch, D., Rothstein, R., Shavelson, R. J., & Shepard, L. A. (2010). Problems with the use of student test scores to evaluate teachers. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.
  9. Baker, B. D., Oluwole, J. O., & Green, P. C. (2013). The legal consequences of mandating high stakes decisions based on low quality information: Teacher evaluation in the Race-to-the-Top era. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(5), 1-71.
  10. Ballou, D. (2012). Review of “The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood.” [Review of the report The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood, by R. Chetty, J Friedman, & J. Rockoff]. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center.
  11. Berliner, D. C. (2014). Exogenous variables and value-added assessments: A fatal flaw. Teachers College Record, 116(1).
  12. Bracey, G. W. (2004a). Serious questions about the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System. Phi Delta Kappan, 85(9), 716-717.
  13. Bracey, G. W. (2004b). Value-added assessment findings: Poor kids get poor teachers. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(4), 331-333.
  14. Braun, H., Chudowsky, N., & Koenig, J. (2010). Getting value out of value-added. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  15. Briggs, D. & Domingue, B. (2011). Due diligence and the evaluation of teachers: A review of the value-added analysis underlying the effectiveness rankings of Los Angeles Unified School District Teachers by the Los Angeles Times. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center.
  16. Burris, C. C. & Welner, K. G. (2011). Letter to Secretary of Education Arne Duncan concerning evaluation of teachers and principals. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center.
  17. Cole, R., Haimson, J., Perez-Johnson, I., & May, H. (2011). Variability in pretest-posttest correlation coefficients by student achievement level. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
  18. Collins, C. (2014). Houston, we have a problem: Teachers find no value in the SAS Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS®). Education Policy Analysis Archives, 22(98), 1-42.
  19. Collins, C., & Amrein-Beardsley, A. (2014). Putting growth and value-added models on the map: A national overview. Teachers College Record, 16(1).
  20. Corcoran, S. P. (2010). Can teachers be evaluated by their students’ test scores? Should they be? The use of value-added measures of teacher effectiveness in policy and practice. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform.
  21. Darling-Hammond, L. (2013). Getting teacher evaluation right: What really matters for effectiveness and improvement. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
  22. Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). Too unreliable. The New York Times.
  23. Darling-Hammond, L., Amrein-Beardsley, A., Haertel, E., & Rothstein, J. (2012). Evaluating teacher evaluation. Phi Delta Kappan, 93(6), 8-15.
  24. Darling-Hammond, L. & Haertel, E. (2012). A better way to grade teachers. Los Angeles Times [op-ed].
  25. Deming, D. J. (2014). Using school choice lotteries to test measures of school effectiveness. American Economic Review, 104(5), 406–411.
  26. Di Carlo, M. (2013). A few points about the instability of value-added estimates. The Shanker Blog.
  27. Eckert, J. M., & Dabrowski, J. (2010). Should value-added measures be used for performance pay? Phi Delta Kappan, 91(8), 88-92.
  28. Ehlert, M., Koedel, C., Parsons, E., & Podgursky, M. (2012). Selecting growth measures for school and teacher evaluations. Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER).
  29. Ehlert, M., Koedel, C., Parsons, E., & Podgursky, M. (2013). The sensitivity of value-added estimates to specification adjustments: Evidence from school- and teacher-level models in Missouri. Statistics and Public Policy, 1(1), 19-27. doi: 10.1080/2330443X.2013.856152
  30. Ewing, D. (2011). Leading mathematician debunks ‘value-added.’ The Washington Post [blog post].
  31. Fryer, R. G. (2013). Teacher incentives and student achievement: Evidence from New York City Public Schools. Journal of Labor Economics, 31(2), 373-407.
  32. Gabriel, R. & Lester, J. N. (2013). Sentinels guarding the grail: Value-added measurement and the quest for education reform. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(9), 1-30.
  33. Glass, G. V. (1990). Using student test scores to evaluate teachers. In Jason Millman & Linda Darling-Hammond (Eds.), The new handbook of teacher evaluation: Assessing elementary and secondary school teachers (pp. 229-240). Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.
  34. Glazerman, S. M., & Potamites, L. (2011). False performance gains: A critique of successive cohort indicators. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.
  35. Glazerman, S., & Seifullah, A. (2010). An evaluation of the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) in Chicago: Year two impact report. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research.
  36. Goldhaber, D. D., Goldschmidt, P., & Tseng, F. (2013). Teacher value-added at the high-school level: Different models, different answers? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 35(2), 220-236. doi:10.3102/0162373712466938
  37. Graue, M. E., Delaney, K. K., & Karch, A. S. (2013). Ecologies of education quality. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(8), 1-36.
  38. Grossman, P., Cohen, J., Ronfeldt, M., & Brown, L. (2014). The test matters: The relationship between classroom observation scores and teacher value added on multiple types of assessment. Educational Researcher, 43(6), 293–303 doi:10.3102/0013189X14544542
  39. Guarino, C. M., Maxfield, M., Reckase, M. D., Thompson, P., & Wooldridge, J.M. (2012). An evaluation of Empirical Bayes’ estimation of value-added teacher performance measures. East Lansing, MI: Education Policy Center at Michigan State University.
  40. Guarino, C. M., Reckase, M. D., & Wooldridge, J. M. (2012). Can value-added measures of teacher education performance be trusted? East Lansing, MI: The Education Policy Center at Michigan State University.
  41. Haertel, E. (1986). The valid use of student performance measures for teacher evaluation. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 8(1), 45-60.
  42. Haertel, E. H. (2013). Reliability and validity of inferences about teachers based on student test scores. Princeton, NJ: Education Testing Service.
  43. Hermann, M., Walsh, E., Isenberg, E., & Resch, A. (2013). Shrinkage of value-added estimates and characteristics of students with hard-to-predict achievement levels. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.
  44. Hill, H. C., Kapitula, L., & Umland, K. (2011). A validity argument approach to evaluating teacher value-added scores. American Educational Research Journal, 48(3), 794-831. doi:10.3102/0002831210387916
  45. Ishii, J., & Rivkin, S. G. (2009). Impediments to the estimation of teacher value added. Education Finance and Policy, 4, 520-536. doi:10.1162/edfp.2009.4.4.520
  46. Jackson, C. K. (2012). Teacher quality at the high-school level: The importance of accounting for tracks. Cambridge, MA: The National Bureau of Economic Research.
  47. Jennings, J. L., & Corcoran, S. P. (2009). “Beware of geeks bearing formulas:” Reflections on growth models for school accountability. Phi Delta Kappan. 90(9), 635-639.
  48. Johnson, W. (2012). Confessions of a ‘bad’ teacher. The New York Times.
  49. Jones, N. D., Buzick, H. M., & Turkan, S. (2013). Including students with disabilities and English learners in measures of educator effectiveness. Educational Researcher, 42(4), 234-241. doi:10.3102/0013189X12468211
  50. Kennedy, M. M. (2010). Attribution error and the quest for teacher quality. Educational Researcher, 39(8), 591-598. doi:10.3102/0013189X10390804
  51. Kersting, N. B., Chen, M., & Stigler, J. W. (2013). Value-added added teacher estimates as part of teacher evaluations: Exploring the effects of data and model specifications on the stability of teacher value-added scores. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(7), 1-39. Retrieved from
  52. Koedel, C., & Betts, J. (2010). Value-added to what? How a ceiling in the testing instrument influences value-added estimation. Education Finance and Policy, 5(1), 54-81.
  53. Kupermintz, H. (2003). Teacher effects and teacher effectiveness: A validity investigation of the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25, 287-298. doi:10.3102/01623737025003287
  54. Lavigne, A. L., & Good, T. L. (2014). Teacher and student evaluation: Moving beyond the failure of school reform. New York, NY: Routledge.
  55. Linn, R. L. (2008). Methodological issues in achieving school accountability. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 40, 699-711. doi:10.1080/00220270802105729
  56. Linn, R L., & Haug, C. (2002). Stability of school-building accountability scores and gains. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24, 29-36. doi:10.3102/01623737024001029
  57. McCaffrey, D. F., Lockwood, J. R., Koretz, D. M., & Hamilton, L. S. (2003). Evaluating value-added models for teacher accountability. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
  58. McCaffrey, D. F., Lockwood, J. R., Koretz, D., Louis, T. A. & Hamilton, L. (2004a). Let’s see more empirical studies on value-added modeling of teacher effects: A reply to Raudenbush, Rubin, Stuart and Zanutto, and Reckase. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1), 139-143. doi:10.3102/10769986029001139
  59. McCaffrey, D. F., Lockwood, J. R., Koretz, D., Louis, T. A., & Hamilton, L. (2004b). Models for value-added modeling of teacher effects. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1), 67-101.
  60. McCaffrey, D. F., Sass, T. R., Lockwood, J. R., & Mihaly, K. (2009). The intertemporal variability of teacher effect estimates. Education Finance and Policy, 4(4), 572–606. doi:10.1162/edfp.2009.4.4.572
  61. Martineau, J. A. (2010). The validity of value-added models: An allegory. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(7), 64-67.
  62. Mathis, W. (2012). Research-based options for education policy making: Teacher evaluation. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center.
  63. Newton, X., Darling-Hammond, L., Haertel, E., & Thomas, E. (2010). Value-added modeling of teacher effectiveness: An exploration of stability across models and contexts. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 18(23), 1-27.
  64. Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. V. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3), 237-257. doi:10.3102/01623737026003237
  65. Papay, J. P. (2010). Different tests, different answers: The stability of teacher value-added estimates across outcome measures. American Educational Research Journal, 48(1), 163-193. doi:10.3102/0002831210362589
  66. Paufler, N. A., & Amrein-Beardsley, A. (2014). The random assignment of students Into elementary classrooms: Implications for value-added analyses and interpretations. American Educational Research Journal, 51(2), 328-362. doi:10.3102/0002831213508299
  67. Pittenger, B. F. (1917). Problems of teacher measurement. Journal of Educational Psychology, (8)2, 103-110.
  68. Polikoff, M. S. (2014). Does the Test Matter? Evaluating teachers when tests differ in their sensitivity to instruction. In T. J. Kane, K. A. Kerr, & R. C. Pianta (Eds.). Designing teacher evaluation systems: New guidance from the Measures of Effective Teaching project (pp. 278-302). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  69. Polikoff, M. S., & Porter, A. C. (2014). Instructional alignment as a measure of teaching qualityEducation Evaluation and Policy Analysisdoi:10.3102/0162373714531851
  70. Popham, W. J. (2013). Evaluating America’s teachers: Mission possible? Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  71. Pullin, D. (2013). Legal issues in the use of student test scores and value-added models (VAM) to determine educational quality. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(6), 1-27. Retrieved from
  72. Raudenbush, S. W. (2004). What are value-added models estimating and what does this imply for statistical practice? Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1), 121-129. doi:10.3102/10769986029001121
  73. Ravitch, D. (2013). Reign of error: The hoax of the privatization movement and the danger to America’s public schools. New York, NY: Knopf, Random House.
  74. Reardon, S. F., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2009). Assumptions of value-added models for estimating school effects. Education Finance and Policy, 4(4), 492-519. doi:10.1162/edfp.2009.4.4.492
  75. Reckase, M. D. (2004). The real world is more complicated than we would like. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1), 117-120. doi:10.3102/10769986029001117
  76. Rothstein, J. (2009). Student sorting and bias in value-added estimation: Selection on observables and unobservables. Education Finance and Policy, 4(4), 537-571. doi:
  77. Rothstein, J. (2010). Teacher quality in educational production: Tracking, decay, and student achievement. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 175-214. doi:10.1162/qjec.2010.125.1.175
  78. Rothstein, J. (2014). Revisiting the impacts of teachers. Berkeley, CA: Working Paper, University of California – Berkeley.
  79. Rubin, D. B., Stuart, E. A., & Zanutto, E. L. (2004). A potential outcomes view of value-added assessment in education. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1), 103-116. doi:10.3102/10769986029001103
  80. Scherrer, J. (2011). Measuring teaching using value-added modeling: The imperfect panacea. NASSP Bulletin, 95(2), 122-140. doi:10.1177/0192636511410052
  81. Schochet, P. Z. & Chiang, H. S. (2010). Error rates in measuring teacher and school performance based on student test score gains. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education.
  82. Springer, M. G., Ballou, D., Hamilton, L. S., Le, V.-N., Lockwood, J.R., McCaffrey, D.F., Pepper, M., & Stecher, B.M. (2010). Teacher pay for performance: Experimental evidence from the project on incentives in teaching. Nashville, TN: National Center on Performance Incentives.
  83. Stacy, B., Guarino, C., Recklase, M., & Wooldridge, J. (2012). Does the precision and stability of value-added estimates of teacher performance depend on the types of students they serve? East Lansing, MI: Education Policy Center at Michigan State University.
  84. Tekwe, C. D., Carter, R. L., Ma, C., Algina, J., Lucas, M. E., Roth, J., …Resnick, M. B. (2004). An empirical comparison of statistical models for value-added assessment of school performance. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1), 11-36. doi:10.3102/10769986029001011
  85. Vigdor, J. L. (2008). Teacher salary bonuses in North Carolina. Nashville, TN: National Center on Performance Incentives.
  86. Zeis, C., Waronska, A. K., & Fuller, R. (2009). Value-added program assessment using nationally standardized tests: Insights into internal validity issues. Journal of Business and Economics, 9(1), 114-127.
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5 thoughts on “All Recommended Articles about VAMs (n=86)

  1. Hello There. I discovered your weblog the usage of msn. This is a really neatly written article. I’ll make sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your helpful information. Thank you for the post. I’ll definitely return.
    :) #$# :(

  2. Thanks. Nice list that I will send on to AZ lawmakers, who never take facts into consideration when it goes against their ideology.

  3. I. It is useful to arrange this list as a chronology so the deep history of skepticism and criticism is obvious. I did a list like that for arts educators, in an unpublished paper.
    2. I contributed a short list on the SLO SGOs that apply to about 70 percent of teachers who do not have VAM scores. It is posted on Diane’s site where your list came to my attention. Thanks for this work, and much else. I have cited some of your papers for arts educators.

    • Laura, where on Diane’s blog is your list on SLOs? Have you updated it? We need the research on this topic as well. Thanks all, for making this research easily accessible.

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