Recommended Readings on VAMs

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  1. American Statistical Association (2014). ASA statement on using value-added models for educational assessment. Alexandria, VA. Retrieved from:
  2. Amrein-Beardsley, A. (2008). Methodological concerns about the Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS). Educational Researcher, 37(2), 65-75. doi: 10.3102/0013189X08316420.
  3. Amrein-Beardsley, A. (2009). Buyers be-aware: What you don’t know can hurt you. Educational Leadership, 67(3), 38-42.
  4. Amrein-Beardsley, A. (2012). Value-added measures in education: The best of the alternatives is simply not good enough [Commentary]Teachers College Record. Retrieved from
  5. Amrein-Beardsley, A. (2014). Rethinking value-added models in education: Critical perspectives on tests and assessment-based accountability. New York, NY: Routledge. *To order please visit Routledge here and use the following 20% off discount code at checkout: IRK69.
  6. Amrein-Beardsley, A., & Barnett, J. H. (2012). Working with error and uncertainty to increase measurement validityEducational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 1-11. doi: 10.1007/s11092-012-9146-6
  7. Amrein-Beardsley, A., & Collins, C. (2012). The SAS Education Value-Added Assessment System (SAS® EVAAS®) in the Houston Independent School District (HISD): Intended and unintended consequences. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 20(12), 1-36. Retrieved from
  8. Au, W. (2011). Neither fair nor accurate: Research-based reasons why high-stakes tests should not be used to evaluate teachers. Rethinking Schools. Retrieved from
  9. Baker, E. L., Barton, P. E., Darling-Hammond, L., Haertel, E., Ladd, H. F., Linn, R. L., Ravitch, D., Rothstein, R., Shavelson, R. J., & Shepard, L. A. (2010). Problems with the use of student test scores to evaluate teachers. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved from
  10. Baker, B. D., Oluwole, J. O., & Green, P. C. (2013). The legal consequences of mandating high stakes decisions based on low quality information: Teacher evaluation in the Race-to-the-Top era. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(5), 1-71. Retrieved from
  11. Ballou, D. (2012). Review of “The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood.” [Review of the report The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood, by R. Chetty, J Friedman, & J. Rockoff]. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from
  12. Berliner, D. C. (2014). Exogenous variables and value-added assessments: A fatal flaw. Teachers College Record, 116(1). Retrieved from See also the full article here.
  13. Bracey, G. W. (2004a). Serious questions about the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System. Phi Delta Kappan, 85(9), 716-717.
  14. Bracey, G. W. (2004b). Value-added assessment findings: Poor kids get poor teachers. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(4), 331-333.
  15. Briggs, D. & Domingue, B. (2011). Due diligence and the evaluation of teachers: A review of the value-added analysis underlying the effectiveness rankings of Los Angeles Unified School District Teachers by the Los Angeles Times. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from
  16. Burris, C. C. & Welner, K. G. (2011). Letter to Secretary of Education Arne Duncan concerning evaluation of teachers and principals. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from:
  17. Chester, M. D. (2003). Multiple measures and high-stakes decisions: A framework for combining measures. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 22(2), 32–41. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3992.2003.tb00126.x
  18. Cole, R., Haimson, J., Perez-Johnson, I., & May, H. (2011). Variability in pretest-posttest correlation coefficients by student achievement level. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from
  19. Collins, C., & Amrein-Beardsley, A. (2014). Putting growth and value-added models on the map: A national overview. Teachers College Record, 16(1). Retrieved from:
  20. Constantine, J., Player, D., Silva, T., Hallgren, K., Grider, M., Deke, J., & & Warner, E. (2009). An evaluation of teachers trained through different routes to certification: Final report. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research. Retrieved from
  21. Corcoran, S. P. (2010). Can teachers be evaluated by their students’ test scores? Should they be? The use of value-added measures of teacher effectiveness in policy and practice. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform. Retrieved from
  22. Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). Too unreliable. The New York Times. Retrieved from
  23. Darling-Hammond, L., Amrein-Beardsley, A., Haertel, E., & Rothstein, J. (2012). Evaluating teacher evaluation. Phi Delta Kappan, 93(6), 8-15. Retrieved from
  24. Darling-Hammond, L. & Haertel, E. (2012). A better way to grade teachers. Los Angeles Times [op-ed]. Retrieved from,0,650639.story
  25. Di Carlo, M. (2013). A few points about the instability of value-added estimates. The Shanker Blog. Retrieved from
  26. Eckert, J. M., & Dabrowski, J. (2010). Should value-added measures be used for performance pay? Phi Delta Kappan, 91(8), 88-92.
  27. Ehlert, M., Koedel, C., Parsons, E., & Podgursky, M. (2012). Selecting growth measures for school and teacher evaluations. Washington, D.C: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER). Retrieved from
  28. Ehlert, M., Koedel, C., Parsons, E., & Podgursky, M. (2013). The sensitivity of value-added estimates to specification adjustments: Evidence from school- and teacher-level models in Missouri. Statistics and Public Policy, 1(1), 19-27. doi: 10.1080/2330443X.2013.856152
  29. Ewing, D. (2011). Leading mathematician debunks ‘value-added.’ The Washington Post [blog post]. Retrieved from
  30. Gabriel, R. & Lester, J. N. (2013). Sentinels guarding the grail: Value-added measurement and the quest for education reform. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(9), 1-30. Retrieved from
  31. Glazerman, S. M., & Potamites, L. (2011). False performance gains: A critique of successive cohort indicators. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research. Retrieved from
  32. Graue, M. E., Delaney, K. K., & Karch, A. S. (2013). Ecologies of education quality. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(8), 1-36. Retrieved from
  33. Guarino, C. M., Maxfield, M., Reckase, M. D., Thompson, P., & Wooldridge, J.M. (2012). An evaluation of Empirical Bayes’ estimation of value-added teacher performance measures. East Lansing, MI: Education Policy Center at Michigan State University. Retrieved from
  34. Guarino, C. M., Reckase, M. D., & Wooldridge, J. M. (2012). Can value-added measures of teacher education performance be trusted? East Lansing, MI: The Education Policy Center at Michigan State University. Retrieved from
  35. Haertel, E. H. (2013). Reliability and validity of inferences about teachers based on student test scores. Princeton, NJ: Education Testing Service. Retrieved from
  36. Haut, M. & Elliott, S. W (Eds.). (2011). Incentives and test-based accountability in education. Committee on Incentives and Test-based Accountability in Public Education, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Retrieved from
  37. Hermann, M., Walsh, E., Isenberg, E., & Resch, A. (2013). Shrinkage of value-added estimates and characteristics of students with hard-to-predict achievement levels. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research. Retrieved from
  38. Hill, H. C., Kapitula, L, & Umlan, K. (2011). A validity argument approach to evaluating teacher value-added scores. American Educational Research Journal, 48(3), 794-831. doi:10.3102/0002831210387916
  39. Ishii, J., & Rivkin, S. G. (2009). Impediments to the estimation of teacher value added. Education Finance and Policy, 4, 520-536. doi:10.1162/edfp.2009.4.4.520
  40. Jackson, C. K. (2012). Teacher quality at the high-school level: The importance of accounting for tracks. Cambridge, MA: The National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from
  41. Jennings, J. L., & Corcoran, S. P. (2009). “Beware of geeks bearing formulas:” Reflections on growth models for school accountability. Phi Delta Kappan. 90(9), 635-639.
  42. Johnson, W. (2012). Confessions of a ‘bad’ teacher. The New York Times. Retrieved from
  43. Kennedy, M. M. (2010). Attribution error and the quest for teacher quality. Educational Researcher, 39(8), 591-598. doi:10.3102/0013189X10390804
  44. Kersting, N. B., Chen, M., & Stigler, J. W. (2013). Value-added added teacher estimates as part of teacher evaluations: Exploring the effects of data and model specifications on the stability of teacher value-added scores. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(7), 1-39. Retrieved from
  45. Koedel, C., & Betts, J. (2010). Value-added to what? How a ceiling in the testing instrument influences value-added estimation. Education Finance and Policy, 5(1), 54-81.
  46. Kupermintz, H. (2003). Teacher effects and teacher effectiveness: A validity investigation of the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25, 287-298. doi:10.3102/01623737025003287
  47. Linn, R. L. (2008). Methodological issues in achieving school accountability. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 40, 699-711.  doi:10.1080/00220270802105729
  48. Linn, R L., & Haug, C. (2002). Stability of school-building accountability scores and gains. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24, 29-36. doi:10.3102/01623737024001029
  49. McCaffrey, D. F., Lockwood, J. R., Koretz, D. M., & Hamilton, L. S. (2003). Evaluating value-added models for teacher accountability. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved from
  50. McCaffrey, D. F., Lockwood, J. R., Koretz, D., Louis, T. A. & Hamilton, L. (2004a). Let’s see more empirical studies on value-added modeling of teacher effects: A reply to Raudenbush, Rubin, Stuart and Zanutto, and Reckase. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1), 139-143. doi:10.3102/10769986029001139
  51. McCaffrey, D. F., Lockwood, J. R., Koretz, D., Louis, T. A., & Hamilton, L. (2004b). Models for value-added modeling of teacher effects. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1), 67-101. Retrieved from http://
  52. McCaffrey, D. F., Sass, T. R., Lockwood, J. R., & Mihaly, K. (2009). The intertemporal variability of teacher effect estimates. Education Finance and Policy, 4(4), 572–606. doi:10.1162/edfp.2009.4.4.572
  53. Martineau, J. A. (2010). The validity of value-added models: An allegory. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(7), 64-67.
  54. Mathis, W. (2012). Research-based options for education policy making: Teacher evaluation. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from
  55. Newton, X., Darling-Hammond, L., Haertel, E., & Thomas, E. (2010). Value-added modeling of teacher effectiveness: An exploration of stability across models and contexts. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 18(23), 1-27. Retrieved from
  56. Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. V. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3), 237-257. doi:10.3102/01623737026003237
  57. Papay, J. P. (2011). Different tests, different answers: The stability of teacher value-added estimates across outcome measures. American Educational Research Journal, 48(1), 163-193. doi: 10.3102/0002831210362589
  58. Paufler, N. A., & Amrein-Beardsley, A. (2014). The random assignment of students Into elementary classrooms: Implications for value-added analyses and interpretations. American Educational Research Journal, 51(2), 328-362. doi: 10.3102/0002831213508299
  59. Polikoff, M. S., & Porter, A. C. (2014). Instructional alignment as a measure of teaching qualityEducation Evaluation and Policy Analysisdoi:10.3102/0162373714531851
  60. Pullin, D. (2013). Legal issues in the use of student test scores and value-added models (VAM) to determine educational quality. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(6), 1-27. Retrieved from
  61. Raudenbush, S. W. (2004). What are value-added models estimating and what does this imply for statistical practice? Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1), 121-129. doi:10.3102/10769986029001121
  62. Ravitch, D. (2013). Reign of error: The hoax of the privatization movement and the danger to America’s public schools. New York, NY: Knopf, Random House.
  63. Reardon, S. F., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2009). Assumptions of value-added models for estimating school effects. Education Finance and Policy, 4(4), 492-519. doi:10.1162/edfp.2009.4.4.492
  64. Rothstein, J. (2009). Student sorting and bias in value-added estimation: Selection on observables and unobservables. Education Finance and Policy, 4(4), 537-571. doi:
  65. Rothstein, J. (2010). Teacher quality in educational production: Tracking, decay, and student achievement. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 175-214. doi:10.1162/qjec.2010.125.1.175
  66. Rubin, D. B., Stuart, E. A., & Zanutto, E. L. (2004). A potential outcomes view of value-added assessment in education. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1), 103-116. doi:10.3102/10769986029001103
  67. Scherrer, J. (2011). Measuring teaching using value-added modeling: The imperfect panacea. NASSP Bulletin, 95(2), 122-140. doi:10.1177/0192636511410052
  68. Schochet, P. Z. & Chiang, H. S. (2010). Error rates in measuring teacher and school performance based on student test score gains. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from
  69. Stacy, B., Guarino, C., Recklase, M., & Wooldridge, J. (2012). Does the precision and stability of value-added estimates of teacher performance depend on the types of students they serve? East Lansing, MI: Education Policy Center at Michigan State University. Retrieved from
  70. Tekwe, C. D., Carter, R. L., Ma, C., Algina, J., Lucas, M. E., Roth, J., …Resnick, M. B. (2004). An empirical comparison of statistical models for value-added assessment of school performance. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 29(1), 11-36. doi:10.3102/10769986029001011
  71. Zeis, C., Waronska, A. K., & Fuller, R. (2009). Value-added program assessment using nationally standardized tests: Insights into internal validity issues. Journal of Business and Economics, 9(1), 114-127.
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4 thoughts on “Recommended Readings on VAMs

  1. Hello There. I discovered your weblog the usage of msn. This is a really neatly written article. I’ll make sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your helpful information. Thank you for the post. I’ll definitely return.
    :) #$# :(

  2. Thanks. Nice list that I will send on to AZ lawmakers, who never take facts into consideration when it goes against their ideology.

  3. I. It is useful to arrange this list as a chronology so the deep history of skepticism and criticism is obvious. I did a list like that for arts educators, in an unpublished paper.
    2. I contributed a short list on the SLO SGOs that apply to about 70 percent of teachers who do not have VAM scores. It is posted on Diane’s site where your list came to my attention. Thanks for this work, and much else. I have cited some of your papers for arts educators.

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