Recommended Articles about High-Stakes Tests

  1. American Educational Research Association (AERA), American Psychological Association (APA), & National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME). (2000). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, D.C.: American Educational Research Association.
  2. Amrein-Beardsley, A. (2009). Controlling schools using high-stakes tests: Moral imperatives inspired by Rachel CarsonTeachers College Record. Retrieved from
  3. Amrein, A. L. & Berliner, D. C. (2002). High-Stakes testing, uncertainty, and student learning. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10(18), 1-74. Retrieved from
  4. Amrein-Beardsley, A., Berliner, D. C., & *Rideau, S. (2010). Cheating in the first, second, and third degree: Educators’ responses to high-stakes testing. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 18. Retrieved from
  5. Haladyna, T. M., & Downing, S. M. (2004). Construct-irrelevant variance in high-stakes testing. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 23(1), 17-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3992.2004.tb00149.x
  6. Haladyna, T. M., Nolen, N. S., & Haas, S. B. (1991). Raising standardized achievement test scores and the origins of test score pollution. Educational Researcher, 20(5), 2-7. doi:10.2307/1176395
  7. Haney, W. (2000). The myth of the Texas miracle in education. Education Analysis Policy Archives, 8(41). Retrieved from
  8. Heubert, J. P., & Hauser, R. M. (Eds.). (1999). High stakes: Testing for tracking, promotion, and graduation. Washington, D.C.: The National Academy Press.
  9. Hursh, D. W. (2008). High-stakes testing and the decline of teaching and learning: The real crisis in education. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
  10. Johnson, D. D., Johnson, B., Farenga, S. J., & Ness, D. (2005). Stop high-stakes testing: An appeal to America’s conscience. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
  11. Kim, J. S. & Sunderman, G. L. (2005). Measuring academic proficiency under the No Child Left Behind Act: Implications for educational equity. Educational Researcher, 43(8), 3-13. doi:10.3102/0013189X034008003
  12. Klein, S. P., Hamilton, L. S., McCaffrey, D. F., & Stecher, B. M. (2000). What do test scores in Texas tell us? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(49), 1-22. Retrieved from
  13. Linn, R. L. (2000). Assessments and accountability. Educational Researcher, 29(2), 4-15. doi:10.2307/1177052
  14. Mathis, W. (2011). Review of “Florida Formula for Student Achievement: Lessons for the Nation.” Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from
  15. Milanowski, A., Kimball, S. M., & White, B. (2004). The relationship between standards-based teacher evaluation scores and student achievement: Replication and extensions at three sites. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Madison. Center for Education Research, Consortium for Policy Research in Education. Retrieved from
  16. Nichols, S. L. & Berliner, D. C. (2007). Collateral damage: How high-stakes testing corrupts America’s schools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
  17. Orfield, G., & Kornhaber, M. L. (Eds.). (2001). Raising standards or raising barriers? Inequality and high-stakes testing in public education. New York, NY: The Century Foundation Press.
  18. Ravitch, D. (2010). The death and life of the great American school system: How testing and choice are undermining education. New York, NY: Basic Books.
  19. Ravitch, D. (2012, February 21). No student left untested. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved from
  20. Sahlberg, P. (2011). Finnish lessons: What can the world learn from educational change in Finland? New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
  21. Slavin, R. E. (1989). PET and the pendulum: Faddism in education and how to stop it. Phi Delta Kappan, 70(10), 752-758.

Tyack, D. & Cuban, L. (1995). Tinkering toward utopia: A century of public school reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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